Unit 18: Present Perfect tense.

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    nuhru_1098
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    Post Unit 18: Present Perfect tense.

    Post by nuhru_1098 on Tue Aug 12, 2008 11:12 am

    Present Perfect Tense
    I have sung

    The present perfect tense is a rather important tense in English, but it gives speakers of some languages a difficult time. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist in those languages. In fact, the structure of the present perfect tense is very simple. The problems come with the use of the tense. In addition, there are some differences in usage between British and American English.

    The present perfect tense is really a very interesting tense, and a very useful one. Try not to translate the present perfect tense into your language. Just try to accept the concepts of this tense and learn to "think" present perfect! You will soon learn to like the present perfect tense!

    How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?
    The structure of the present perfect tense is:

    subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
    have past participle

    Here are some examples of the present perfect tense:

    subject auxiliary verb main verb complement
    + I have seen ET.
    + You have eaten mine.
    - She has not been to Rome.
    - We have not played football.

    Interrogative:
    ? Have you finished?
    ? Have they done it?

    Contractions with the present perfect tense
    When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write.

    He's or he's??? Be careful! The 's contraction is used for the auxiliary verbs have and be. For example, "It's eaten" can mean:
    It has eaten. [present perfect tense, active voice]
    It is eaten. [present tense, passive voice]
    It is usually clear from the context.

    Here are some examples:

    I've finished my work.
    John's seen ET.
    They've gone home.

    How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?
    This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense:

    experience
    change
    continuing situation
    1. Present perfect tense for experience
    We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:

    I have seen ET.
    He has lived in Bangkok.
    Have you been there?
    We have never eaten caviar.

    The action or state was in the past. In my head, I have a memory now.
    Connection with past: the event was in the past.
    Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something about the event; I have experience of it.

    2. Present perfect tense for change
    We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:

    I have bought a car.
    Last week I didn't have a car. Now I have a car.
    John has broken his leg.
    Yesterday John had a good leg. Now he has a bad leg. Has the price gone up?
    Was the price $1.50 yesterday? Is the price $1.70 today?
    The police have arrested the killer.
    Yesterday the killer was free. Now he is in prison.
    Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present.
    Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past.

    Americans do not use the present perfect tense so much as British speakers. Americans often use the past tense instead. An American might say "Did you have lunch?", where a British person would say "Have you had lunch?"


    3. Present perfect tense for continuing situation
    We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.

    I have worked here since June.
    He has been ill for 2 days.
    How long have you known Tara?

    The situation started in the past. It continues up to now. (It will probably continue into the future.)
    Connection with past: the situation started in the past.
    Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.



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    markitus_11
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    Post Re: Unit 18: Present Perfect tense.

    Post by markitus_11 on Tue Aug 12, 2008 11:34 am

    Good work nuhru_1098, you continue this way


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